Using normalized climatological anomalies to rank extreme synoptic-scale events objectively.

Case studies referenced in the rankings

Robert Hart and Richard Grumm

Updated 7 February 2001 to include events from 1948 through 31 August 2000

[ Description | Top-20 All Time | Top-10 by variable | Top-10 by month | Case References | Recent Ranking Changes | Latest MRF Rarity Forecast ]


Abraham, J., K. Macdonald, and P. Joe, 1991: The interaction of Hurricane Hugo with the Mid-Latitude westerlies. Proc. 19th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Miami, FL. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 124-129.

Bosart, L.F. and D.B. Dean, 1991: The Agnes rainstorm of June 1972: Surface feature evolution culminating in inland storm redevelopment. Wea. Forecasting, 6, 515-537.

Bristor, C.L., 1951: "The Great Storm of November, 1950." Weatherwise, 4, 10-16

Cardone, V. J., R. E. Jensen, D. T. Resio, V. R. Swail, and A. T. Cox, 1996: Evaluation of contemporary ocean wave models in rare extreme events: "Halloween storm" of October 1991 and the "Storm of the Century" of March 1993. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,13, 198-230.

DeGaetano, A. T., 2000: Climatic Perspective and Impacts of the 1998 Northern New York and New England Ice Storm. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 237-254.

Dickinson, M. J., L. F. Bosart, W. E. Bracken, G. J. Hakim, D. M. Schultz, M. A. Bedrick, K. R. Tyle, 1997: The March 1993 Superstorm Cyclogenesis: Incipient Phase Synoptic- and Convective-Scale Flow Interaction and Model Performance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 3041-3072.

DiMego, G.J. and L.F. Bosart, 1982a: The transformation of tropical storm Agnes into an extratropical cyclone. Part I: The observed fields and vertical motion computations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 385-411.

DiMego, G.J. and L.F. Bosart, 1982b: The transformation of tropical storm Agnes into an extratropical cyclone. Part II: Moisture, vorticity, and kinetic energy budgets. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 412-433.

Gaza, B, and L.F Bosart, 1990: Trough merger characteristics over North America. Wea. Forecasting, 5, 314-331.

Grumm, R. H. and D. Nicosia, 1997: WSR-88D observations of mesoscale precipitation bands over Pennsylvania. Natl. Wea. Dig., 21, 10-23.

Grumm, R. H. and R. Hart, 2001: Standardized Anomalies Applied to Significant Cold Season Weather Events: Preliminary Findings. Wea. Forecasting, 16, in press.

Gyakum, J.R. and P. Sisson, 1999: A comparison of heavy precipitation composites with individual extreme events such as the January 1998 ice storm and the November 1996 upstate New York and Quebec floods. Preprints, 17th Conf. on Weather Analysis and Forecasting, Denver, CO, Amer Meteor. Soc.

Hakim, G. J., L.F. Bosart, and D. Keyser, 1995: The Ohio Valley wave-merger cyclogenesis event of 25-26 January 1978. Part I: Multiscale case study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 2663-2692.

Hakim, G. J., D. Keyser, and L.F. Bosart, 1996: The Ohio Valley wave-merger cyclogenesis event of 25-26 January 1978. Part II: Diagnosis using quasigeostrophic potential vorticity inversion. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 2176-2205.

Kocin, P.J., P.N. Schumacher, R.F.Morales Jr., and L.W. Uccellini, 1995: Overview of the 12-14 March 1993 Superstorm. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,76, 165-182

Kocin, P.J. and L. W. Uccellini, 1990: Snowstorms along the Northeastern coast of the United States: 1955-1985. American Meteorological Society, 280pp.

Knox, J.L., 1955: The Storm "Hazel", synoptic resume of its development as it approached Southern Ontario. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 36, 239-246.

Leathers, D.J., D.R. Kluck, S. Kroczynski, 1998: The severe flooding event of January 1996 across north-central Pennsylvania. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 785-797.

Ludlum, D. M., 1951: "Winter strikes early in 1951." Weatherwise, 4, 131-141.

Ludlum, D. M., 1956: "The Great Atlantic Low". Weatherwise, 9, 64-65.

NOAA, 1968-1999: Storm Data. Vols 1-41. [ Available from NCDC, Federal Bldg, Asheville, NC 28801-2696]

Palmén, E., 1958: Vertical circulation and release of kinetic energy during the development of Hurricane Hazel into an extratropical storm. Tellus, 10, 1-23.

Pearce, M.L., 1997: Non-classic and weakly forced convective events: A forecasting challenge for the dominant form of severe weather in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States. M.S. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 106 pp.

Reed, R.J., 1955: A study of a characteristic type of upper-level frontogenesis. J. Meteor., 12, 226-37

Ruscher, P.H. and T. P. Condo, 1996a: Development of a rapidly deepening extratropical cyclone over land. Part I: Kinematic aspects. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 1609-1632.

Ruscher, P.H. and T. P. Condo, 1996b: Development of a rapidly deepening extratropical cyclone over land. Part II: Thermodynamic aspects and the role of frontogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 1633-1647.

Schwartz, G, 1977: The day it snowed in Miami. Weatherwise, 30, 50.

Treidl, R.A., 1959: "The Great MidWinter Storm of 20-22 January 1959." Weatherwise, 12, 45-47.