Using normalized climatological anomalies to rank extreme synoptic-scale events objectively.

Top-10 rankings by month

Robert Hart and Richard Grumm

Updated 5 January 2004 to include events from 1948 through 2003.

[ Description | Top-20 All Time | Top-10 by variable | Top-10 by month | Case References | Recent Ranking Changes | Latest MRF Rarity Forecast ]


JAN
Rank
Date
MTOTAL
Description
References
1
00Z09JAN1956
4.950
"The Great Atlantic Low"
Ludlum 1956
2
12Z15JAN1995
4.722
Deep Gulf of Mexico Storm
3
12Z11JAN1975
4.566
Severe Minnesota Blizzard
4
12Z08JAN1998
4.536
NE US/SE Canada Ice Storm
Gyakum and Sisson 1999; DeGaetano 2000
5
12Z08JAN1958
4.356
Intense Coastal Storm
Ludlum 1958a
6
12Z19JAN1977
4.340
Historic Florida Freeze
Schwartz 1977
7
12Z19JAN1996
4.307
NE US Flooding/Snowmelt
Leathers et al 1998
8
00Z10JAN1978
4.260
Deep NE U.S. Storm
9
12Z26JAN1978
4.179
The Cleveland Superbomb
Gaza and Bosart 1990; Hakim et al 1995,1996
10
12Z22JAN1959
4.176
Severe E. U.S. Snow/Ice Storm
Treidl 1959

FEB
Rank
Date
MTOTAL
Description
References
1
00Z04FEB1970
4.201
2
00Z12FEB1981
4.041
Extr. amplitude E. U.S. trough
3
00Z12FEB1999
3.892
Record Mid. Atl./NE U.S. Heat Wave
Grumm and Hart 2001
4
12Z03FEB1998
3.863
5
00Z23FEB1981
3.788
6
12Z10FEB1966
3.728
7
12Z13FEB1962
3.710
8
12Z21FEB1953
3.701
9
00Z21FEB1955
3.598
10
00Z24FEB1989
3.571

MAR
Rank
Date
MTOTAL
Description
References
1
00Z14MAR1993
4.576
Superstorm of 1993
Kocin et al 1995; Dickinson et al 1997
2
12Z17MAR1983
4.464
Low-latitude intense cyclone
Dickinson et al 1997
3
12Z11MAR1996
3.931
4
00Z16MAR1990
3.856
NE U.S. Heat/SE Flooding
5
12Z21MAR1958
3.789
Heavy NE Elevation Snowstorm
Ludlum 1958b
6
00Z07MAR1987
3.781
NC/NE U.S. Heat Wave
7
12Z04MAR1991
3.725
8
00Z18MAR1973
3.634
9
12Z05MAR1964
3.617
10
12Z23MAR1968
3.593

APR
Rank
Date
MTOTAL
Description
References
1
12Z28APR1997
4.133
2
00Z01APR1987
3.911
SE U.S. Rec. Cold Outbreak
3
00Z30APR1953
3.904
4
12Z14APR1980
3.766
5
00Z29APR1992
3.731
6
12Z05APR1977
3.723
7
00Z17APR1984
3.721
8
00Z12APR1988
3.706
S. Appalachian Snowstorm
9
12Z18APR1983
3.680
10
12Z30APR1996
3.580

MAY
Rank
Date
MTOTAL
Description
References
1
00Z28MAY1973
4.131
2
12Z15MAY1976
4.076
3
12Z07MAY1992
3.864
4
00Z07MAY1982
3.781
5
00Z26MAY1979
3.718
6
00Z13MAY1960
3.656
7
00Z06MAY1950
3.636
8
12Z20MAY1994
3.632
9
12Z17MAY1984
3.585
10
12Z29MAY1953
3.573

JUN
Rank
Date
MTOTAL
Description
References
1
00Z13JUN1990
4.030
2
12Z29JUN1981
3.996
3
12Z27JUN1974
3.984
Transitioned subtrop. storm
4
12Z23JUN1972
3.974
Extratropical Agnes
DiMego & Bosart 1982a,b;Bosart & Dean 1991
5
00Z04JUN1955
3.957
6
12Z11JUN1955
3.914
7
00Z27JUN1985
3.775
8
12Z28JUN1957
3.664
9
12Z02JUN1984
3.641
10
12Z10JUN1977
3.582

JUL
Rank
Date
MTOTAL
Description
References
1
12Z14JUL1990
3.906
2
12Z13JUL1975
3.653
3
00Z02JUL1988
3.622
NE U.S. Record July Cold
4
12Z28JUL1994
3.567
5
00Z12JUL1979
3.558
6
12Z20JUL1996
3.535
NE US Severe Outbreak
Pearce 1997
7
12Z15JUL1967
3.534
8
12Z10JUL1963
3.525
9
00Z06JUL1993
3.499
10
00Z11JUL1983
3.485

AUG
Rank
Date
MTOTAL
Description
References
1
12Z22AUG1973
4.077
Deep Gulf of Mexico Storm
2
12Z03AUG1964
3.811
3
12Z07AUG1950
3.735
4
12Z17AUG1980
3.722
5
00Z08AUG2002
3.599
Pre-Gustav & deep E. Coast trough.
6
12Z13AUG2000
3.589
Deep cutoff & MidAtl Flood
7
12Z26AUG1951
3.528
8
12Z21AUG1961
3.505
9
12Z03AUG1989
3.497
10
12Z04AUG1956
3.496

SEP
Rank
Date
MTOTAL
Description
References
1
12Z19SEP1981
3.793
2
12Z23SEP1989
3.598
Extratropical Hugo & Early Snow
Abraham et al 1991
3
00Z05SEP1997
3.588
4
12Z26SEP1982
3.562
5
00Z04SEP1998
3.546
6
00Z24SEP1994
3.516
7
12Z24SEP1975
3.514
8
12Z06SEP1988
3.436
3-Day Record Cold Wave
9
12Z22SEP1983
3.423
10
12Z13SEP1951
3.396

OCT
Rank
Date
MTOTAL
Description
References
1
00Z16OCT1954
4.391
Extratropical Hazel
Knox 1955; Palmen 1958
2
12Z31OCT1993
4.232
E. U.S. Elevation Blizzard
Grumm and Nicosia 1997
3
00Z20OCT1989
4.179
SE U.S. Record Cold & Snow
4
12Z14OCT2001
3.966
Gulf Coast Severe Outbreak
5
12Z25OCT1959
3.915
6
12Z30OCT1991
3.856
"The Perfect Storm"
Cardone et al 1996
7
00Z06OCT1995
3.782
Extratropical Opal
8
12Z13OCT1997
3.699
9
12Z09OCT1952
3.631
10
00Z15OCT1955
3.598

NOV
Rank
Date
MTOTAL
Description
References
1
00Z26NOV1953
4.396
2
12Z17NOV2002
4.185
Historic S/Central New England Ice Storm
3
12Z02NOV1966
4.145
Heavy C. Appal. Snowstorm
4
00Z21NOV1952
4.081
5
00Z17NOV1989
4.005
NE cold after severe outbreak
Ruscher and Condo 1996a,b
6
12Z12NOV1968
3.937
Severe coastal storm
7
12Z05NOV1950
3.895
8
00Z26NOV1950
3.850
Historic E US storm
Bristor 1951
9
12Z20NOV1954
3.790
10
00Z04NOV1951
3.787
E. U.S. Autumn Snowstorm
Ludlum 1951

DEC
Rank
Date
MTOTAL
Description
References
1
12Z28DEC1980
4.469
Deep Carolina Coastal Low
2
12Z22DEC1972
4.199
Deep Gulf of Mexico Storm
3
12Z11DEC1950
4.192
4
00Z16DEC1992
4.101
5
12Z14DEC1997
4.084
Deep Gulf of Mexico Storm
6
12Z11DEC1967
3.985
Deep Gulf of Mexico Storm
7
00Z10DEC1957
3.926
8
00Z15DEC1953
3.923
Deep East Coast Storm
Reed 1955
9
00Z30DEC1997
3.922
Major NE Coastal Storm
10
00Z11DEC1981
3.804


Last updated: 5 January 2004

Robert Hart, PSU (hart@ems.psu.edu)
Richard Grumm, SOO, NWS CTP (rgrumm@supercel.met.psu.edu)